8.2 Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion


This module should occupy approximately 30% of total course time.

Module Description
This compulsory module examines the scientific foundations of human movement. In this module, students explore how the body moves and why it moves in particular ways. Students focus on the relationships between anatomy, physiology, fitness, biomechanics and efficient human movement.
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In this module, students investigate the following critical questions:
  • How dothe musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
  • What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?

  • How do biomechanical principles influence movement?

    This module forms a basis for a more detailed study of physiology and improving performance in the HSC course.

    Outcomes

    A student:
    P7 explains how body systems influence the way the body moves
    P8 describes the components of physical fitness and explains how they are monitored
    P9 describes biomechanical factors that influence the efficiency of the body in motion
    P10 plans for participation in physical activity to satisfy a range of individual needs
    P11 assesses and monitors physical fitness levels and physical activity patterns
    P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity concepts
    P17 analyses factors influencing movement and patterns of participation.


How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
Students learn about:
> skeletal system
- major bones involved in movement
- structure and function of synovial joints
- joint actions, eg extension and flexion
Students learn to:
· identify the location and type of major bones involved in movement, eg long bones articulate at hinge joints for flexion and extension
> muscular system
- major muscles involved in movement
- muscle relationship (agonist, antagonist)
- types of muscle contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric)
> identify the location of the major muscles involved in movement and related joint actions
> perform and analyse movements, eg overarm throw, by examining:
- bones involved and the joint action
- muscles involved and the type of contraction
> respiratory system
- structure and function
- lung function (inspiration, expiration)
- exchange of gases (internal, external)
> analyse the various aspects of lung function through participation in a range of physical activities
> circulatory system
- components of blood
- structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
- pulmonary and systemic circulation
- blood pressure.
> analyse the movement of blood through the body and the influence of the circulatory and respiratory systems on movement efficiency and performance.
What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?
Students learn about:
> health-related components of physical fitness
- cardiorespiratory endurance
- muscular strength
- muscular endurance
- flexibility
- body composition
Students learn to:
> analyse the relationship between physical fitness and movement efficiency. Students should consider the question ‘to what degree is fitness a predictor of performance?’
> skill-related components of physical fitness
- power
- speed
- agility
- coordination
- balance
- reaction time
> measure and analyse a range of both health-related and skill-related components of physical fitness
> think critically about the purpose and benefits of testing physical fitness
> aerobic and anaerobic training
- FITT principle
> immediate physiological responses to training
- heart rate
- ventilation rate
- stroke volume
- cardiac output
- lactate levels.
> design an aerobic training session based on the FITT principle
> compare the relative importance of aerobic and anaerobic training for different sports, eg gymnastics versus soccer
> examine the reasons for the changing patterns of respiration and heart rate during and after submaximal physical activity.
How do biomechanical principles influence movement?
Students learn about:
> motion
- the application of linear motion, velocity, speed, acceleration, momentum in movement and performance contexts
Students learn to:
> apply principles of motion to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops
> balance and stability
- centre of gravity
- line of gravity
- base of support
> apply principles of balance and stability to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops
> fluid mechanics
- flotation, centre of buoyancy
- fluid resistance
> apply principles of fluid mechanics to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops
> describe how principles of fluid mechanics have influenced changes in movement and performance, eg technique modification, clothing/suits, equipment/apparatus
> force
- how the body applies force
- how the body absorbs force
- applying force to an object.
> apply principles of force to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR THIS CORE:
1. Identify and explain six different joint actions?
2. In a hamstring curl, which muscle acts as the agonist and which muscle is the antagonist? Explain your answer?
3. Muscles take part in three types of muscle contractions. Identify these contractions and explain each one briefly?
4. Define and give examples to gross/fine and whole/part movements?
5. Explain the structure and function of the respiratory system an analyse how it works for an aerobic athlete?


VIDEOS










Diego Maradona one of the best football players to grace the football pitch. His style of football led him to dominant againts opposition. However what was it about him that allowed him to be so superior. We can observe his balance and stability which includes his centre of gravity and base of support.









This video will give you a basic 3D tour of the muscles within the body.


USEFUL WEBSITES FOR THIS CORE:

Skeletal System
Interactive Skeleton
Interactive Joints
Muscular system
Muscle Madness
Respiratory System
Respiratory System 2
Circulatory system
Health fitness components
Skill fitness components
FITT principle