8.1 Preliminary Core 1: Better Health for Individuals
This module should occupy approximately 30% of total course time.
Module Description

This compulsory module examines the meanings of health, the perceptions individuals have about health and the range of factors and behaviours that influence health. Students are introduced to health promotion and investigate approaches and strategies that can assist individuals to achieve better health.


In this module, students investigate the following critical questions:
    • What does health mean to individuals?
    • What influences the health of individuals?
    • What strategies help promote the health of individuals?

      After studying this module, students will understand and value how a wide range of factors interact to support an individual to achieve better health. This understanding is further developed in the HSC core module, Health Priorities in Australia.


      A student:
    • P1 identifies and examines why individuals give different meanings to health
    • P2 explains how a range of health behaviours affect an individual’s health
    • P3 describes how an individual’s health is determined by a range of factors
    • P4 evaluates aspects of health over which individuals can exert some control
    • P5 describes factors that contribute to effective health promotion
    • P6 proposes actions that can improve and maintain an individual’s health
    • P15 forms opinions about health-promoting actions based on a critical examination of relevant information
    • P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity concepts

What does health mean to individuals?
Students learn about:
> meanings of health 
- definitions of health
- dimensions of health
- relative and dynamic nature of health
Students learn to:
> examine the dynamic nature of health by exploring:
- the interactions between the dimensions
- the concept of good health
- the health continuum
- how health changes over time
- how an individual’s circumstances affect their health
> perceptions of health
- perceptions of their health
- perceptions of the health of others eg parents, the elderly, the homeless
- implications of different perceptions of health
- perceptions of health as social constructs
- impact of the media, peers and family
> examine perceptions of health by exploring questions such as:
- how healthy am I? How healthy do other people think I am?
- how healthy do I think other people are?
- why would my perceptions of health be similar or different to others?
- how might an individual’s perception of health affect their behaviour and wellbeing?
· determine the degree to which perceptions of health are socially constructed
> health behaviours of young people
- the positive health status of young people
- protective behaviours and risk behaviours
> explore current research and information to:
- identify the prevalence of and trends in the health behaviours of young people
- challenge the accuracy of societal perceptions of the health behaviours of young people
· identify protective and risk behaviours for health issues relevant to young people and predict how risk decreases or increases when multiple factors interact
What influences the health of individuals?

Students learn about:
> the determinants of health
- individual factors, eg knowledge and skills, attitudes, genetics
- sociocultural factors, eg family, peers, media, religion, culture
- socioeconomic factors, eg employment, education, income
- environmental factors, eg geographical location, access to health services and technology
Students learn to:
> analyse how an individual’s health can be determined by a range of factors acting in various combinations

> the degree of control individuals can exert over their health
- modifiable and non-modifiable health determinants
- the changing influence of determinants through different life stages
> assess the degree of control individuals have over their health, by exploring questions such as:
- how much control do individuals have over the determinants?
- what can individuals do to modify the determinants they have little control over?
- how does the level of influence of the determinants change over time?

> health as a social construct
- recognises the interrelationship of determinants
- challenges the notion that health is solely an individual’s responsibility.
> investigate how the determinants of health explain why some individuals and groups have better or worse health than others.

What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?

Students learn about:
Students learn to:

> what is health promotion

> responsibility for health promotion
- individuals
- community groups/schools
- non-government organisations
- government
- international organisations, eg WHO, United Nations
> describe the various health promotion roles and responsibilities adopted by individuals, groups and governments

> health promotion approaches and strategies
- lifestyle/behavioural approaches, eg quit smoking programs, health education
- preventative medical approaches, eg childhood immunisation, cancer screening
- public health approaches, eg health-promoting schools and workplaces
> determine the effectiveness of a range of health promotion strategies relevant to young people, eg government interventions relating to alcohol consumption and young drivers
> propose other actions that may improve the health of young people
> the Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework
- developing personal skills
- creating supportive environments
- strengthening community action
- reorienting health services
- building healthy public policy
> describe the historical significance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
> explain how health promotion based on the action areas of the Ottawa Charter have contributed to positive health outcomes. For example:
- reduction in road injuries
- reduction in tobacco use
> principles of social justice
- equity
- diversity
- supportive environments.
> identify strategies where the principles of social justice have been applied to promote the health of individuals.


1. Define the term 'epidemiology'?
2. Explain the health of young people in Australia today?
3. Identify and critically analyse a current health promotion initiative?
4. Identify and evaluate the principles of social justice?
5. List and provide examples of the five (5) action areas of the Ottawa Charter


What determines our level of health? There are various factors which impact our health status, these determinants of health can either be modifiable or non-modfiable. The video expresses what our social determinants of health of are.

Ottawa charter is made of up 5 priniciples. These priniciples can be viewed through TV commercials which highlight the action areas of the O.C (Ottawa Charter)


World Health OrganisationAustralian Institute of Health and WelfareAustralian Bureau of StatisticsMeanings of HealthMedia and healthHealth behaviours of young peopleWHO determinants of HealthHealth determinantsAustralian Health promotion AssociationAustralian Government- Health PromotionOttawa CharterSocial Justice principles